Friday, September 12, 2014

My Black Beuties in the Holy Land

Irfan, Sarah & Muneerah - in Holy Land

Wednesday, September 10, 2014


A blood clot in the brain can cause an Ischemic stroke, a stroke that is caused by an artery to the brain becoming blocked and starving a portion of the brain of oxygen and nutrients. A clot in the brain can also cause a buildup of cellular waste and carbon dioxide because the brain will be unable to clear this waste properly. This can cause the cells around the blockage to die, and the neurons in this portion of the brain to stop working, which can cause damage throughout the body. If you suspect that you have a blood clot in the brain, immediate treatment will be necessary to avoid a life threatening condition.

Causes of Blood Clots in the Brain

Head injuries or trauma to the brain, head and neck can cause these clots to form in the brain. Blood clots in the brain are caused when bleeding occurs between the skull and the brain. The body will form a clot to stop the bleeding, which will put pressure on the surrounding brain tissue. Trauma to the head can also cause blood clots formed outside of the brain to break loose and become lodged in the brain, which can cause an ischemic stroke.
Travelling clots from other parts of the body will travel to a blood vessel that leads to the brain, causing a blockage that can lead to an embolic stroke or cerebral embolism. These travelling clots are more likely to cause damage to other parts of the body before they reach the brain.
Narrowing or hardening of the arteries, commonly known as atherosclerosis can increase someone's vulnerability to developing a clot in the brain. Hardened arteries are at risk of tearing as they pump blood, which can cause a clot to form in the damaged area so blood does not leak into the body. These clots can cut off blood flow to the narrowed artery, causing damage to the surrounding cells.
Inflammation of a superficial vein can also cause an increased risk of blood clots. If a vein is damaged due to a high trauma injury it can become inflamed. A bacterial infection in the vein can also cause this type of inflammation which will reduce blood flow to the surrounding area. These damaged areas will be at a higher risk for leaking, which will result in a blood clot. If the area is inflamed then this blood clot could cut off the blood supply to the surrounding cells.
Women who use oral contraceptives may be at an increased risk for blood clotting. Women who have a history of blood clots, are over the age of 35 or smoke and continue to use contraceptives have an extremely high risk of developing blood clots which should be addressed by your doctor.

Symptoms of Blood Clots in the Brain

There are a variety of symptoms one may experience when having blood clots in brain, ranging from headaches to difficulty speaking, depression and Ischemic Attack.
  • Headaches- Headaches associated with a blood clot will normally be found on one side of the head. These can be worsened by coughing or sneezing and can impair head movement or physical activity over time.
  • Speaking Difficulties- You may begin to slur your words or have difficulty speaking. This is especially prominent if you have a clot on the left side of the brain.
  • Confusion- It may feel as though it takes longer to think, or your thinking capacity is not where it should be. You may feel confused or feel as though it takes longer than usual to understand things.
  • Changes in Personality- A blood clot can cause your personality to become altered from its usual state. You may suddenly feel very manic or normally energetic people can feel subdued.
  • Dizziness- Bouts of dizziness may occur from time to time. This may be accompanied by temporary blindness.
  • Depression- Those who suddenly develop depression are frequently checked for blood clots in the brain to ensure that all portions of the brain are getting the right amount of oxygen.
  • Loss of Coordination- You may find yourself unable to move with the same level of coordination that you are used to. The ability to transfer objects from one hand to the other may be especially affected.
  • Seizures- Seizures caused by a blood clot can last up to two minutes. Seizures that last longer may be a sign of a more serious condition.
  • Paralysis- One side of your body may suddenly become paralyzed if you are suffering from a blood clot. The arm, leg and face will be especially affected by this.
  • Ischemic Attack- This is also known as a "mini-stroke," which will cause dysfunction on one side of the body. If this condition escalates it can become a full stroke.

Treatments for Blood Clots in the Brain

If you suspect you have a clot in your brain it is vital that you seek medical attention right away, including contacting emergency medical services if you believe you may be suffering from a stroke.
An MRI or CT scan will need to be used to diagnose the presence of a clot and the condition which caused it to appear.
Anti-coagulants such as aspirin can often be used to dissolve the clot. The patient may also be placed on an aspirin regimen to prevent the appearance of new clots. Do not take anti-coagulants if you are at risk for hypertension as this can interfere with your regular medication.
Surgery. In some cases, a clot can be surgically removed from the brain. Arteries can also be opened and scraped clean of plaque to reduce the risk of additional injury. Patients at risk for developing additional clots may have a tissue plasminogen activator inserted in a vein. This will release clot-busting drugs directly to the brain to stop a stroke from occurring.


Tuesday, January 1, 2013



Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common type of OA and a common cause of disability. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the symptoms of knee OA.

Treatment Options

For the treatment of knee OA, your doctor may sometimes recommend a steroid injection into or around the joint. The pain relief is usually only temporary, and your doctor will limit the number of steroid injections that you can receive.

Another type of injection therapy is called visco-supplementation. This involves the injection of hyaluronic acid derivatives into the joint. Hyaluronic acid is a normal component of joint fluid. However, the response to hyaluronic acid injection, as with steroid injection, is variable and usually temporary.


Surgery is usually only offered for severe cases that have not responded to the other forms of therapy (see section on Osteoarthritis). Both the type of surgery and the decision for surgery are made following careful discussions between you and your doctor.

Some of the more common types of surgery include:

This is suitable for early OA of the knee, and is considered a minor procedure during which the orthopaedic specialist uses an ‘arthroscope’ to look inside the joint. This is a form of ‘keyhole surgery’. During the procedure, the surgeon will be able to clean up damaged portions of the joint, or stimulate repair in areas where the cartilage has been lost.

This procedure is suitable for younger patients (generally less than 50 years old) with limited OA of the knee. During this procedure, the bones around the joint are cut to allow the alignment of the joint to be corrected. Symptom relief can sometimes be achieved for up to 10 years following this procedure.

Joint Replacement
In late stages of OA, the joint has become so damaged that the best treatment is to replace the joint with an artificial one, which is typically made of a metal alloy together with a plastic component. The entire joint may be replaced (total joint replacement), or if OA is limited to only one part of the joint, then the surgeon may choose to only replace that part (unicompartmental/partial joint replacement).

Thursday, November 29, 2012



ON the morning of Nov 19 we were nervous wrecks.
Mixed feelings and thoughts filled our minds, waiting for the UPSR results.
Finally, when it was announced my second daughter achieved 4A’s and 1B, a sense of relief and proud achievement for us as parents.
For her to achieve such a feat was a tremendous achievement in itself.
When our daughter was three years old, we notice there was something different about her.
She has never uttered a proper comprehensible word, was quiet, reserved and demonstrated slower reflexes than others.
Compared to her sister and cousins, she would be the odd one out. At times engrossed in her own world, we could sense part of her emotional disconnection to those around her.
If she wanted certain things, toys or food, most of the time she would be practically holding and guiding her parents’ hands rather than mentioning or taking it by herself.
As concerned parents, we took her for various specialist tests, including a physical ENT review, and reports suggested a speech deficiency problem with a probable case of a mild form autism.
The experts even suggested we consider enrolling her in a government special school rather than a normal primary school.
However, we were resolved and determined to help her at all costs, not to prove her critics wrong but mainly to fulfill our responsibilities as parents of a ‘special’ child.
We started to develop her motor speech capabilities during her third year. Various speech therapies, countless hours over weekends and working days were spent over the years. We even chauffeured a recommended elderly therapist from PJ to Shah Alam.
We explored pre-schools providing certain motor and human skills development until her fifth year.
We even bought knitting toys to strengthen and improve her mind and physical coordination. To excite her creative side, we even enrolled her into art classes and piano lessons.
When she was six, we started to concentrate on her phonics skills, enrolled her into a preschool specialising in reading skills, to prepare her for the next stage, primary school.
We ensured reading milestones were met, both in Bahasa and English. Against the early suggestion, we registered her into the nearby normal primary school.
Along the way, we also taught and guided her to read the Quran. It was very slow and frustrating in the beginning.
We kept our expectations low during her early primary years. To give her an ‘academic handicap’, we even had to justify and explain her history to the teachers at times.
Later we realised this was a mistake and we avoided such ‘handicap-reasonings’ from our parent-teacher discussions and just let teachers treat her on equal footing with the rest of her friends.
Over time, we could see our daughter’s positive progression in the academic subjects, co-curricular activities and even her circle of friends grew.
We really felt the emotional side of hers had ‘come out’ and we could connect. This was also evident when she was appointed as a school librarian and also deputy class monitor.
During the last two years of parent-teacher discussions, we somehow felt vindicated when positive remarks were given by teachers that saw her as being a normal student, performing even better than her normal contemporaries.
For that, we are forever grateful to all her teachers, therapists, relatives and friends who we came into contact and gave us support.
To all parents who can relate to the experience or even more difficult instances, we pray you persevere and never lose hope in your ‘special’ child.
Your sacrifices, hardwork and effort will eventually be rewarded, however small, in the end. Insya Allah.
Proud parents, Shah Alam